[PubMed] [Google Scholar] 50. few of the hundreds of potential targets in metabolism, and global rates of drug resistant bacteria are on the rise.1,2 For example, in 2010 2010, 2 million people died from tuberculosis, caused by (Mtb), including approximately 150,000 individuals who died from one of several multi-drug resistant strains.3,4 Without new therapeutics working through unique targets, drug resistance and decreased drug susceptibility will continue to be a public health concern.1,2 Recently, the nonmevalonate pathway (NMP) has been examined as a novel route against bacteria and parasites.5C10 The role of the NMP is to synthesize activated five carbon units that this cell will elaborate into more complex structures. Humans use the mevalonate pathway to biosynthesize the same isoprenoid units. As such, the enzymes found in the NMP are not found in humans, leading to the interest in this pathway for antibacterial drug targeting. While many of the ALLO-1 enzymes in the NMP have been examined, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (Dxr or IspC) has been studied to the greatest extent.5,6 This enzyme is responsible for reducing and isomerizing 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP or DOXP) to 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 3-phosphate (MEP). Several crystal structures of Dxr from various bacteria have been reported.11,12 Most of the work developing inhibitors against Dxr has been in the context of (0.78 g/mL). As has been exhibited by others35,36, fosmidomycin does not have antitubercular activity (MIC 500 g/mL) and this is also the case for its acetyl derivative, “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”FR900098″,”term_id”:”525219861″,”term_text”:”FR900098″FR900098, which is usually inactive. Table 1 Antibacterial activities of compounds 1, 2, 10, 15, 16 and 21C27.a Open in a separate window (MSSA)(MRSA)(H37Rv)k12tolcmutation is the only documented path toward fosmidomycin resistance, we expect these compounds to avoid such a resistance pathway. Dxr inhibitors optimized for both cell penetration and the enzymes active site could provide an important tool for target validation on the road toward development of a novel therapeutic. Acknowledgments This work was supported by funding from the GWU Department of Chemistry, the GWU University Facilitating Fund, the Intramural Research Program of the NIAID (NIH), the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC), and NIH (AI086453 to CSD). Footnotes Publisher’s Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. 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