S5 D, 1), whereas coexpression of WT Parkin restored its mislocalization (Fig. detected by immunoprecipitation from cells and in vitro reconstitution using recombinant proteins. We thus propose that the phosphorylated ubiquitin chain functions as the genuine Parkin receptor for recruitment to depolarized mitochondria. Introduction Genetic studies around the hereditary form of Parkinsons disease have identified genes relevant to disease pathogenesis. ((also known as 5-Methylcytidine double knockout (KO) MEFs seem to contradict this mitofusin receptor model (Narendra et al., 2008; Chan et al., 2011). Moreover, other data on Parkin translocation are difficult to interpret using this hypothesis. The catalytically inactive Parkin C431S mutant results in a dead-end intermediate via ubiquitin-oxyester conjugation on Ser431 (Iguchi et al., 2013; Lazarou et al., 2013). Parkin(C431S) is usually thus folded correctly but dysfunctional in E3, and it fails to translocate to depolarized mitochondria, which suggests that this ubiquitin ligase activity of Parkin is required for mitochondrial translocation (Lazarou et al., 2013; Zheng and Hunter, 2013). Under these conditions, we have no consensus on whether phosphorylated mitofusin is the genuine Parkin receptor on depolarized mitochondria. Thus the largest unresolved issue in this field at present is usually to elucidate the mechanism by which Parkin is usually recruited to damaged mitochondria. Here we report that a PINK1 phosphorylated ubiquitin chain is the genuine Parkin receptor. This proposal enables us to reasonably explain many aspects of Parkin recruitment. Results K63- and K48-linked polyubiquitin chains are phosphorylated by PINK1 In our previous paper, we showed that phosphorylated ubiquitin lacking the C-terminal diglycine motif, which is crucial for conjugation to the substrate and polyubiquitin chain formation, remains capable of activating Parkin E3 activity (Koyano et al., 2014). This result indicates that neither polyubiquitin chain formation nor substrate conjugation of phosphorylated ubiquitin is required for Parkin activation. Nevertheless, when the absolute level of phosphorylated ubiquitin in cell lysates was determined by mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, a significant amount of phosphorylated ubiquitin was detected in the middle (14,000C55,000) and the high (>55,000) molecular weight fractions (Koyano et al., 2014). Because ubiquitin is usually a small protein (9 kD), it is reasonable to assume that the aforementioned signal was derived from substrate-conjugated phosphorylated ubiquitin and/or ubiquitin chain made up of phosphorylated ubiquitin. We thus examined whether the phosphorylated ubiquitin chain exists in cells after mitochondrial uncoupler (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazine [CCCP]) treatment. The major polyubiquitin chain is usually constituted via ubiquitinCubiquitin conjugation on Lys48 (K48) or Lys63 (K63). Because the position of ubiquitin phosphorylation (S65) is 5-Methylcytidine very close to K63, we can directly verify and analyze incorporation of a phosphate in the K63-linked polyubiquitin chain by MS analysis. Tagln When we 5-Methylcytidine searched the MS data for a peptide signal corresponding to both S65 phosphorylation and a K63-GlyGly branch, which is a vestige of K63-linked polyubiquitylation, the signal was detected in the high and the middle molecular weight fractions of lysates prepared from CCCP-treated cells in three impartial experiments (Fig. 1 A). This signal was absent in control cells not treated with CCCP and the low (<14,000) molecular weight fraction of CCCP-treated cells (Fig. 1 A). In contrast, the MS signal derived from unmodified ubiquitin, S65-phosphoryated ubiquitin without the K63-GlyGly branch, or a K63-linked chain-forming nonphosphorylated ubiquitin was observed in all fractions, CCCP-treated fractions, and the high and middle molecular weight fractions, respectively (Fig. S1, ACC). We thus confidently concluded that the K63-linked polyubiquitin chain is phosphorylated only in CCCP-treated cells. Open in a separate window Physique 1. Detection of a PINK1 phosphorylated ubiquitin chain in cells after a decrease in m. (A) Mass-spectrometric (MS) analysis identified peptides with a phosphorylated S65 and a K63-GlyGly branch in the middle (14,000C55,000) and high (>55,000), but not low (<14,000), molecular weight fractions of cell lysates after CCCP treatment. The data shown are from a single MS analysis of three independently prepared samples. (B) The extracted 574.29719 ion chromatogram corresponds to the doubly charged ubiquitin phosphopeptide EpSTLHLVLR, which was identified in immunoprecipitates using an Apu2 anti-K48Clinked polyubiquitin chain antibody but not control IgG. This experiment was completed once (= 1). (C) Retarded-mobility bands corresponding to K48-linked, K63-linked, and linear 5-Methylcytidine tetra-ubiquitin chains (red vertical lines) were observed.