Supplementary Materials Supplemental file 1 JVI. peptides. We further explored the prospect of cross-protective immunity conferred by prior exposure to four common human coronaviruses. The SARS-CoV-2 proteome was successfully sampled and SBC-115076 was represented by a diversity of HLA alleles. However, we found that HLA-B*46:01 had the fewest predicted binding peptides for SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that individuals with this allele may be particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, as they were previously shown to be for SARS (M. Lin, H.-T. Tseng, J. A. Trejaut, H.-L. Lee, et al., BMC Med Genet 4:9, FGF2 2003, https://bmcmedgenet.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2350-4-9). Conversely, we found that HLA-B*15:03 showed the greatest capacity to present highly conserved SARS-CoV-2 peptides that are shared among common human coronaviruses, suggesting that it could enable cross-protective T-cell-based immunity. Finally, we reported global distributions of HLA SBC-115076 types with potential epidemiological ramifications in the setting of the current pandemic. IMPORTANCE Individual genetic variation may help to explain different immune responses to a SBC-115076 computer virus across a populace. In particular, understanding how variation in HLA may affect the course of COVID-19 could help recognize people at higher risk from the condition. HLA keying in could be fast and inexpensive. Pairing HLA keying in with COVID-19 tests where feasible could improve evaluation of intensity of viral disease in the populace. Following the advancement of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the pathogen that causes COVID-19, individuals with high-risk HLA types could be prioritized for vaccination. analysis of viral peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I binding affinity across 145 different HLA types for the entire SARS-CoV-2 proteome. RESULTS To explore the potential for a given HLA allele to produce an antiviral response, we assessed the HLA binding affinity of all possible 8-mers to 12-mers from your SARS-CoV-2 proteome (development of SARS-CoV-2, which could change the repertoire of viral epitopes offered or could normally modulate virulence in an HLA-independent manner (64, 65) (https://nextstrain.org/ncov). We also did not address the potential for individual-level genetic variance in other proteins (e.g., angiotensin transforming enzyme 2 [ACE2] or transmembrane serine protease 2 [TMPRSS2], essential host proteins for SARS-CoV-2 priming and cell access ) to modulate the host-pathogen interface. Unless and until the findings we present here are clinically validated, they should not be employed for any clinical purposes. However, we do at this juncture recommend integrating HLA screening into clinical trials and pairing HLA typing with COVID-19 screening where feasible to more rapidly develop and deploy a predictor(s) of viral severity in SBC-115076 the population and, potentially, to tailor future vaccination strategies to SBC-115076 genotypically at-risk populations. This approach may have additional implications for the management of a broad array of other viruses. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sequence retrieval and alignments. Full polyprotein 1ab (ORF1ab), spike (S) protein, membrane (M) protein, envelope (E) protein, and nucleocapsid (N) protein sequences were obtained for each of 34 unique but representative alpha and betacoronaviruses from broad genus and subgenus distributions, including all known human coronaviruses (i.e., SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, HKU1, OC43, NL63, and 229E). FASTA-formatted protein sequence data (the full accession number list is available in Table S5 in the supplemental material) were retrieved from your National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (67). For each of the protein classes (i.e., ORF1ab, S, M, E, and N), all 34 coronavirus sequences were aligned using the Clustal Omega v1.2.4 multisequence aligner tool employing the following parameters: sequence type [Protein], output alignment format [clustal_num], dealign [false], mBed-like clustering guide-tree [true], mBed-like clustering iteration [true], quantity of combined iterations 0, maximum lead tree iterations [-1], and maximum HMM iterations [-1] (68). For the purposes of estimating time of viral peptide production, we classified ORF1b and ORF1a peptides.