Supplementary MaterialsAdditional document 1

Supplementary MaterialsAdditional document 1. found in a variety of organs, maintain tissue homeostasis at a steady state and act as the first line of defence during pathogen-induced inflammation in the host. Most monocyte/macrophage lineage studies in chickens have been largely performed using cell lines, while few studies using primary cells?have been conducted. In the present study, the phenotypic and functional characteristics Rabbit Polyclonal to Caspase 9 (phospho-Thr125) of splenic monocyte/macrophage lineage cells during steady state and inflammatory conditions were examined. Splenic monocyte/macrophage lineage cells could be identified as MRC1loMHCIIhi and MRC1hiMHCIIlo cells based on their surface expression of MRC1 and MHCII. In the steady state, MRC1loMHCIIhi Salvianolic acid D cells were more frequently found among MRC1+ cells. MRC1loMHCIIhi cells expressed a higher number of antigen-presenting molecules (MHCII, MHCI, and CD80) than MRC1hiMHCIIlo cells. In contrast, MRC1hiMHCIIlo cells showed better phagocytic and CCR5-dependent migratory properties than MRC1loMHCIIhi cells. Furthermore, MRC1hiMHCIIlo cells infiltrated the spleen in vivo and then became MRC1loMHCIIhi cells. During lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory conditions that were produced via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, the proportion and absolute number of MRC1hiMHCIIlo cells were increased in the spleen. Uniquely, inflammation induced the downregulation of MHCII expression in MRC1hiMHCIIlo cells. The major source of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, and IL-12) was MRC1loMHCIIhi cells. Furthermore, MRC1hiMHCIIlo cells showed greater bactericidal activity than MRC1loMHCIIhi cells during LPS-induced inflammation. Collectively, these outcomes claim that two subsets of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells can be found in the poultry spleen which have practical differences. Intro Monocytes/macrophages, which comprise nearly all mononuclear phagocytes, derive from bone tissue marrow precursors [1]. Macrophages can be found in a variety of organs and seeded through the prenatal stage, and they’re taken care of through self-proliferation or, Salvianolic acid D somewhat, via the infiltration of circulating monocytes [2]. Therefore, macrophages can be found in a number of types of cells under steady-state circumstances, where they very clear apoptotic and senescent cells [3, 4]. Furthermore, macrophages are rapidly recruited locally via chemokine signals and are generated by the differentiation of circulating monocytes in response to inflammation or pathogen invasion [5]. Monocytes/macrophages are part of the innate immune system and function as the Salvianolic acid D first line of defence in the host through various effector functions. They express several kinds of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and C-type lectin receptors that recognize pathogens [6], and then phagocytose and clear the pathogen by lysosomal acidification [7]. Once activated, monocytes/macrophages release pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and IL-12 [8]. Among lymphoid organs, the mammalian spleen is known to contain various types of mononuclear phagocyte subsets that are defined by phenotype, function and localization [9]. However, the spleen of chickens differs from that of mammals in Salvianolic acid D both structure and function [10]. It has been reported that red pulp Salvianolic acid D monocyte/macrophage lineage cells in spleen from chicken express MHCII and show a high phagocytosis ability that is similar to that of mammalian red pulp macrophages [11]. In addition, monocyte/macrophage lineage cells are also found in chicken ellipsoids [11, 12], which are analogous to the mammalian marginal zone. Chicken mononuclear phagocytes include monocytes, and macrophage-like and dendritic cell (DC)-like cells [13]. The phenotype and function of macrophage- and DC-like cells are poorly defined because of a lack of appropriate reagents. However, in vitro culture of mononuclear phagocytes demonstrated that KUL01, which targets mannose receptor C-type 1 (MRC1), the homologue of the mammalian mannose receptor [14], can be used as a representative marker of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, whereas 8F2 (putative chicken CD11c) can be used as a marker of DC-like cells [12]. Furthermore, comparative profiling of gene expression in splenic mononuclear phagocytes was performed between chickens and mammals, demonstrating that MRC1+ and CD11c+ cells in the spleen in chicken are distinct phagocytic populations similar to macrophages and DCs, respectively, which are the analogous mammalian counterparts [13]. Chicken monocyte/macrophage lineage cells expressing MRC1 have been found to exhibit features similar to those in mammals,.