Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a newly classified family of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage. combined immunodeficiency (SCID) due to mutation of the gene encoding the common chain cytokine receptor subunit IL-2R or the tyrosine kinase JAK3 did not restore presence of ILCs in various peripheral tissues (Vely et al., 2016), supporting the notion that tissue-resident ILCs are established at early ontogenic stages. Mechanisms regulating specific localization and maintenance of ILCs in various peripheral tissues are still poorly understood. MIGRATION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF INNATE LYMPHOID CELLS IN THE SKIN Skin is the outmost barrier tissue constantly exposed to assaults of various foreign agents. Skin is enriched Rabbit polyclonal to AGAP1 with ILCs and ILCs of all the three groups could be found in the skin (Yang et al., 2016). Based on expression of the transcription factor GATA3 and the cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-5, ILC2s account for a major fraction of total skin ILCs in adult mice (Roediger et al., 2013; Yang et al., 2016). Although few ILCs of the skin in mice express the transcription factor RORt, a significant fraction of skin ILCs are capable of producing IL-17A, suggesting that they are ILC3s or ILC3-like cells independent of RORt (Yang et al., 2016). However, their lineage relationship with other RORt-expressing ILC3s is not known. The group 1 ILCs, including NK cells, 1214265-57-2 supplier are present in the skin of mice (Luci et al., 2009; Yang et al., 2016), and they account for a smaller fraction of total skin ILCs than ILC2s or ILC3s in adult mice (Yang et al., 2016). On the other hand, in the skin of fetal and newborn mice, there are abundant NK1.1+ ILC1-type cells although their origin and lineage association are not known (Almeida et al., 2015). As in mice, ILCs of all the three groups are found in the healthy skin of humans (Dyring-Andersen et al., 2014; Ebert et al., 2006; Salimi et al., 2013; Teunissen et al., 2014; Villanova et al., 2014). Based on their expression of the prostaglandin D2 receptor CRTH2, ILC2s account for 25%C40% of skin 1214265-57-2 supplier ILCs in humans (Dyring-Andersen et al., 2014; Salimi et al., 2013; Teunissen et al., 2014; Villanova et al., 2014). ILC3s, including both NCR+ and NCR? subsets, account for about 50% of total skin ILCs in humans (Dyring-Andersen et al., 2014; Teunissen et al., 2014; Villanova et al., 2014). The rest are ILC1s and others uncharacterized. Since ILCs share many common regulatory pathways with helper T cells for their development and function, we investigated whether skin-specific ILCs are programmed in skin-draining lymph nodes to acquire their skin-homing property for establishment of their skin residency, paralleling the process by which the skin-homing property of conventional T cells is imprinted in skin-draining lymph nodes (Yang et al., 2016). Among the most skin-specific homing molecules expressed on skin-homing T cells and ILCs is the chemokine receptor CCR10 (Sigmundsdottir and Butcher, 2008; Sigmundsdottir et al., 2007; Xiong et al., 2012; Yang et al., 2016). A ligand for CCR10, CCL27, is highly and specifically expressed by keratinocytes of the healthy skin in both humans and mice (Homey et al., 2000; Morales et al., 1999). The adhesion molecules E- and P-selectin ligands and chemokine receptors CCR4, CCR6, and CCR8 are also involved in the skin-homing process in the healthy skin (Austrup et al., 1997; Campbell and Butcher, 2002; Campbell et al., 1999; Picker et al., 1993; Reiss et al., 2001; Weninger et al., 2000). In addition, different sets of homing molecules are involved in migration of immune cells to the inflamed skin under specific inflammatory conditions 1214265-57-2 supplier than those under homeostatic conditions (Lonsdorf et al., 2009; Masopust and Schenkel, 2013; Mora and von Andrian, 2006). For example, high induction of the chemokines CCL1 and CCL18 is found in the lesional skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (Gombert et al., 2005; Pivarcsi et al., 2004). The chemokine receptor CXCR3 is involved in migration.